Cryptosporidia are single-celled parasites belonging to the Cryptosporiidae family. Cryptosporidia are closely related to Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, and to Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis.
Cryptosporidium is a causative agent of parasitic diarrheal diseases. Immunocompromised persons, such as HIV-infected persons and young children have an increased risk of disease. Symptoms include:
With a weak immune system: chronic diarrhea, cholangitis (inflammation of the bile ducts)
Cryptosporidia are spread worldwide. Cryptosporidium species infect many types of animals such as dogs, cats, cattle, sheep, and birds. The pathogens form infectious oocysts (spores) that are excreted by the host.
Relevance of pathogen in transmission in endoscopy
Pulmonology: Not relevant
Ear, nose, and throat: Not relevant
Urology: Not relevant
Relevance for endoscope surveillance
High concern organism
Infection occurs predominantly through the ingestion of contaminated water (e.g., drinking water, in swimming pools). However, fecal-oral transmission from human to human, animal to human, or infection through contaminated food is also possible.
Resistance to antibiotics
Low susceptibility to many antimicrobial agents has been described.
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Kryptosporidiose, Robert Koch-Institut, https://www.rki.de/DE/Content/Infekt/EpidBull/Merkblaetter/Ratgeber_Kryptosporidiose.html (accessed on 06.30.2021)
Parasites - Cryptosporidium, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/crypto/index.html (accessed on 06.30.2021).
Unterschätzte Kryptosporidiose, Deutsche Apotheker-Zeitung, https://www.deutsche-apotheker-zeitung.de/daz-az/2017/daz-24-2017/unterschaetzte-kryptosporidiose (accessed on 06.30.2021).