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Helicobacter pylori

Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium from the Helicobacter genus.

Helicobacter pylori causes various stomach diseases:

  • Type B gastritis

  • Gastric ulcers

  • Duodenal ulcers

  • Gastric adenocarcinoma

  • MALT lymphoma (MALT = mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue)

In total, approximately 50% of the world’s population is colonized with Helicobacter pylori. The bacterium often colonizes the stomach and duodenum.

Relevance of pathogen in transmission in endoscopy

  • Gastroenterology: High

  • Pulmonology: Not relevant

  • Ear, nose, and throat: Not relevant

  • Urology: Not relevant

Relevance for endoscope surveillance

  • High concern organism

Transmission route

It is not yet clear how the pathogen is transmitted. Human to human transmission via the oral-oral and fecal-oral routes is considered likely.

Resistance to antibiotics

Helicobacter pylori shows high regional variability and is, among others, resistant to macrolides, nitroimidazoles and 3rd generation quinolones.

Further readings

  1. Anforderungen an die Hygiene bei der Aufbereitung von Medizinprodukten, Empfehlung der Kommission für Krankenhaushygiene und Infektionsprävention (KRINKO) beim Robert Koch-Institut (RKI) und des Bundesinstitutes für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte (BfArM), Bundesgesundheitsbl 2012 · 55:1244–1310.

  2. Duodenoscope Surveillance Sampling & Culturing, Reducing the Risks of Infection, Department of Health and Human Services Collaboration, 2018, https://www.fda.gov/media/111081/download (accessed on 04.22.2021).

  3. Fischbach W. et al. S2k-Leitlinie Helicobacter pylori und gastroduodenale Ulkuskrankheit, Z Gastroenterol 2016; 54: 327–363.

  4. Gries O, Ly T: Infektologie – Kompendium humanpathogener Infektionskrankheiten und Erreger, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2019.

  5. Gastritis, Magen- und Zwölffingerdarmgeschwüre, Gesundheitsberichterstattung des Bundes, Heft 55, Robert Koch-Institut/Statistisches Bundesamt, 2013.