Helicobacter pylori

Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium from the Helicobacter genus.

Helicobacter pylori causes various stomach diseases:

  • Type B gastritis

  • Gastric ulcers

  • Duodenal ulcers

  • Gastric adenocarcinoma

  • MALT lymphoma (MALT = mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue)

In total, approximately 50% of the world’s population is colonized with Helicobacter pylori. The bacterium often colonizes the stomach and duodenum.

Relevance of pathogen in transmission in endoscopy

  • Gastroenterology: High

  • Pulmonology: Not relevant

  • Ear, nose, and throat: Not relevant

  • Urology: Not relevant

Relevance for endoscope surveillance

  • High concern organism

Transmission route

It is not yet clear how the pathogen is transmitted. Human to human transmission via the oral-oral and fecal-oral routes is considered likely.

Resistance to antibiotics

Helicobacter pylori shows high regional variability and is, among others, resistant to macrolides, nitroimidazoles and 3rd generation quinolones.