Pantoea spp.

Pantoea spp. are Gram-negative facultative anaerobic rod-shaped bacteria, belonging to the Erwiniaceae family. Pantoea spp. form a genus with 20 species that are very similar, including P. agglomerans, P. ananatis, P. dispersa, and P. stewartii [2].

P. agglomerans is the species that most commonly triggers infections in humans [2]. Infections predominantly affect immunosuppressed patients, thus a number of publications include reports of infections in cancer patients and outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units [3][4]. P. agglomerans causes a variety of very different clinical pictures [5][6]:

  • Bone, joint, and soft tissue infections

  • Bacteremia

  • Septicemia

  • Pneumonia

  • Urinary tract infections

  • Meningitis

Pantoea spp. occur in material containing fecal matter, plants, and soil, where they act
both as a part of the natural environment and as pathogens [2].

Relevance of pathogen in transmission in endoscopy

  • Gastroenterology: Low

  • Pulmonology: Low

  • Ear, nose, and throat: Not relevant

  • Urology: Low

Relevance for endoscope surveillance

  • High concern organism

Transmission route

Transmission results from injuries caused by thorns, wood splinters, or other plant matter. Nosocomial transmission has occurred due to contaminated parenteral nutrition, blood products, and anesthetic agents [2][7][8].

Resistance to antibiotics

Studies show that isolates of P. agglomerans can contain a broad spectrum of antibiotic resistant genes. Carbapenem-resistant P. agglomerans was identified as a trigger for pneumonia and death among children. P. agglomerans isolates recovered from baby food were resistant to cefotaxime, moxifloxacin, cotrimoxazole, and ticarcillin. The resistance genes can be transmitted to other species. P. agglomerans therefore poses a risk for the further spread of nosocomial pathogens [6].